Dis cover more about 3D-PAWS!
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Radiation ShieldThe radiation shield protects 3 sensors from direct exposure to the sun, while allowing sufficient circulation so that the air being sampled is representative of outside conditions. These 3 Adafruit sensors include the BMP280, which measures temperature and pressure, the HTU21D, which measures temperature and relative humidity, and the MCP9808 which measures temperature only. The redundancy in the critical state variable of temperature allows for greater confidence in this measurement.
Solar PanelPower requirements for the different data loggers that can be used with 3D-PAWS vary considerably. The solar panel and mount shown here is for a larger, 20-watt panel which is necessary for the Raspberry Pi data logger, but other data loggers like the Particle and Arduino can get away with just a small, 5-watt panel.
Microprocessor HousingThe 3D-PAWS uses a Raspberry Pi3 (RPi3) Single Board Computer (SBC) to run the weather stations. The RPi3 uses a Linux Debian operating system (OS). The computer handles all the operating of the sensors, data acquisition, archiving, data processing, and communication to remote data servers. Remote communications can be achieved through a wireless or cell-modem network. Other microcontrollers are in development.
BatteryA 12V battery supplies power to the station and microcontroller. It is charged by the solar panel and helps maintain continuous operation during nighttime, rainy, and cloudy conditions. The battery is housed in a battery box. New station designs that utilize a more efficient microcontroller take advantage of a much smaller battery mounted near the radiation shield.
Rain GaugeThe tipping bucket rain gauge uses a Hall Effects latch sensor triggered by a small magnet to count the number of tips. The rain gauge has a specified resolution of 0.2 mm of liquid precipitation per tip that is carefully calibrated for every gauge that is manufactured. We are currently using the Honeywell SS451A sensor.
AnemometerThe weather station anemometer is a three-cup design which uses a Hall Effects latch sensor triggered by two small magnets to count the revolutions of the cups. We are currently using the Honeywell SS451A sensor.
Light SensorThe light sensor measures the levels of infrared (IR) and visible spectrum solar radiation and calculates the level of ultraviolet (UV) light. We are currently using the Adafruit SI1145 which is based on a SiLabs sensor.
Wind VaneThe wind vane measures wind direction in degrees. The wind vane uses a Hall Effects rotational sensor triggered by a magnet to determine angular displacement. The sensor that we are using is the AMS AS5600-SO_EK_AB. It must be carefully calibrated and oriented for accurate observations.